Ruins of ancient port evidence to prosperity of Maritime Silk Road
Photo shows an aerial view of the ruins site of the Shuomen ancient port in Wenzhou, east China's Zhejiang province. (Photo courtesy of Liang Yanhua)
On the vast blue sea, the Maritime Silk Road is a link between different civilizations, bearing witness to the communication and exchanges between the Chinese nation and the world with rich cultural heritage resources.
The ruins site of the Shuomen ancient port in Wenzhou, a city in east China's Zhejiang province, was discovered by archeologists between 2021 and 2022, bringing back to life the bustling scene of Wenzhou, a node along the Maritime Silk Road, back in the day.
During the archaeology project, important remains related to the port were unearthed, including eight docks and two shipwrecks dating back to the Song Dynasty (960-1279), tons of stacked porcelain pieces belonging to the Song Dynasty and the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), and lacquered woodware.
Barbican ruins built in the Song and Yuan dynasties and in the Ming and Qing dynasties (1368-1911) were discovered, and remains of dikes, bridges, sluice gates and piers that witnessed the change of the coastline over the course of more than 1,000 years.
"The ruins site of the Shuomen ancient port is one of the most important archeological discoveries at ancient port sites along the Maritime Silk Road to date. The discovery has outstanding value in world navigation history and will become an important cultural heritage site supporting the Maritime Silk Road's application for world heritage," said Jiang Bo, vice president of the International Council on Monuments and Sites.
Photo shows a part of the ruins of the No. 3 dock at the archaeological site of the Shuomen ancient port in Wenzhou, east China's Zhejiang province. (Photo courtesy of Liang Yanhua)
The ancient city of Wenzhou has a history of 1,700 years. The city is surrounded by mountains on its eastern and western sides, with deep water and a stable shoreline.
The favorable geographical condition makes the ancient city closely defended and gives it natural advantages in building ports. Since its establishment, the city's location and the port site have basically remained unchanged.
Sitting in the middle of China's eastern coastline with favorable conditions as a port, Wenzhou has long been a node along the Maritime Silk Road.
In 2018, a frosted glass bowl, originating in the Sasanian Empire, was unearthed in a tomb of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (317-420) at a cluster of ancient tombs in Oubei township, Yongjia county of Wenzhou. The cultural relic is important evidence of Wenzhou's earlier participation in trade along the Maritime Silk Road.
In the late Tang Dynasty (618-907), Wenzhou was one of the major ports hosting Japanese merchants. Between the late Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127) and the Yuan Dynasty, Wenzhou entered a period of great prosperity following the rise of the Longquan kiln.
A picture shows the restored appearance of the No. 3 dock at the archaeological site of the Shuomen ancient port in Wenzhou, east China's Zhejiang province. (Photo courtesy of Liang Yanhua)
The mountainous coastal geography and open economic structure have shaped the unique regional culture of Wenzhou.
The ancient people here were adept at operating boats and sailing in the sea, and they were influenced by the concept that smooth trade is conducive to industry and commerce. Wenzhou has long been an important shipbuilding base in China and maintained a leading position in shipbuilding technologies.
The two shipwrecks found in the discovery adopted the most advanced innovative technologies in the Song Dynasty, including the keel structure and the water-tight bulkhead. Porcelain pieces, from Yuan Dynasty, were mostly found stacked in rows, and at least 90 percent of them were produced at the Longquan kiln.
Longquan porcelain products were the main export porcelains during the Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279) and the middle of the Ming Dynasty. Wenzhou, an important port and hub for maritime and inland waterway transportation, became a major distribution center and a point of departure for the export of Longquan porcelain products.
The densely distributed remains of docks and the stacked porcelain pieces unearthed attest to Wenzhou's position as a node along the Maritime Silk Road and an important port for the trade of Longquan porcelain products.
Photo shows a porcelain ware from China's Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127) unearthed in the archaeological site of the Shuomen ancient port in Wenzhou city, east China's Zhejiang province. (Photo courtesy of Liang Yanhua)
The study of the Maritime Silk Road is usually divided into three links－production, transportation and market. The ruins site of the Shuomen ancient port has elements closely related to all three links, including docks, ships, shipping routes, navigation marks, and kilns. It is a Maritime Silk Road heritage site with complete elements.
The discovery fills the blank of port heritage sites along the Maritime Silk Road at home and abroad with great significance for deepening research on the Maritime Silk Road.
The Maritime Silk Road, old and vibrant, has improved the well-being of people in areas along it. Today, it is showing renewed vitality.
In recent years, Wenzhou's container shipping sector has grown fast. The city has expanded its network of foreign trade shipping routes and currently operates 11 near-sea routes.
Currently, the city is accelerating the development of a higher-standard open economy and promoting higher-level opening-up.
Photo shows a porcelain ware with a fish pattern made in China's Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279). (Photo courtesy of Liang Yanhua)
Working with the National Center for Archeology under China's National Cultural Heritage Administration, Wenzhou plans to build a themed park at the ruins site of the Shuomen ancient port to fully explore the Maritime Silk Road culture with high standards. In addition to protecting cultural relics, the city hopes to bring the ruins site closer to the public.
Blessed with the ruins site of the ancient port, Wenzhou is glowing with renewed vigor in the new era.
(Liang Yanhua is head of the archaeology project at the ruins site of the Shuomen ancient port in Wenzhou.)